Events Affecting Early Jewish Thought and Movements

Events Affecting Early Jewish Thought and Movements

(Dates are approximate)

4000-3500 B.C.       Sumerians in Babylon.

3000 B.C.–                Semitic tribes occupy Assyria, Phoenicians on Syrian coast

2500 B.C.–                Settlement of Aramean nomads from Euphrates, Semitic Canaanites in Palestine

2000 B.C.-                Hittites become kingdom, attack Syria

2100 B.C.–                Avraham leaves Ur in Chaldees (Babylon)

1500-1000-              Jews leave Egypt with Moses. He receives 10 commandments

1400 B.C.-                Founding of Rome

1100 B.C. –               Founding of London by Brutus of Troy

1002-B.C.–                Saul-king of Israel

1000-960 B.C.–        David, king of Israel and Judah

800-701 B.C.–          Celts move into England

753 B.C.                    Foundation of Rome

700 B.C.                    Isaiah’s teachings, Celt settlement in Austria

705-68 B.C.–            King Sennacherib of Assyria defeats Egypt and Judah

722-586 B.C.           Jewish Dispersions following Assyrian, Babylonian conquests            

700-500 B.C.-          Start of Babylonian Captivity. Zoroaster founds Persian religion

629 B.C.                    King Josiah revives Judaism, renovates temple, finds first written ms of Deuteronomy

600-500 B.C.–          Nebuchadnezzar burns Jerusalem, Buddha is founder of Buddhism

 

600 B.C.A.D. 421            Book of Mormon timeline- Early American civilizations, visit of the risen Christ

500-451 B.C.–          Start of Greek civilization in Rome

450-401 B.C.–          Torah becomes law of Jewish state

400-350 B.C.–          Pentateuch codified

336-323 B.C.           Alexander the Great conquests enabled Hellenization of Asiatic, Semitic peoples

300 B.C.A.D. 200   Thriving North African Jewish communities-trade, agriculture

301 B.C.–                  Palestine reverts to Egyptian rule

285 B.C.–                  Old Testament translated into Greek at Alexandria

168 B.C.–                  Desecration of temple at Jerusalem, persecution of Jews by Antiochus IV

165 B.C.–                  Temple rededicated by Judas Macabeus-expels Syrians. Hasmonean siege

100 B.C.–                  Writings portion of Torah completed by Gamaliel III. New synagogue practices installed

33-62 B.C.–               Paul’s missionary travels and death. Thousands of Jewish conversions to Christianity

5 B.C.                        Greek translation-Septuagint-Old Covenant. Compiled by 70 Jews

7 B.C.                        (approximate) Birth of Joshua (Yeshua), Jesus in Nazareth

4 B.C.                        Herod the Great died

27 30–                        Baptism, mission, death and resurrection of Jesus. Died in 22nd year of reign of Tiberius

36                               Most followers of The Way had left Judea

66-73                         Revolt of Zealots against Romans under Vespasian

70                               Titus, son of Vespasian ruled -Fall of Jerusalem, start of Christian expulsions

70-132                      Rabbi Johanan ben Zakkai, canonization of Jewish literature

72                               Fall of Masada to Roman forces. Defenders committed mass suicide

79-81–                       Titus became emperor

170-219                    Rabbi Judah Hanasi Ordered Mishneh of Talmud written

325-                           Council of Nicea

350–                           Roman Catholicism

383–                           Roman legions start to evacuate Britain

400                            Palestinian (Jerusalem) Talmud finalized

500                            Babylonian Talmud compiled for Diaspora Jewry

600–                           Modern Hebrew formulated

 

Major Changes in History of Israel

Avram’s migration to Canaan from Ur (Gen 11:31.)  Change begins with prophesying
1280 B.C. Freed from Egypt and Moses taught.
722 B.C. Assyrians – under King Hezekiah destroyed kingdom of Israel, later Judah
598-586 B.C. Babylonians conquered Judah
444 to 397 B.C. Babylonians destroyed Temple from time of Ezra
336-323 B.C. Alexander – Greece –
312-364 B.C. Seleucids, part of Greek dynasty
37-4 B.C. Hasmonean domination through Roman conquerors, Pompey, Herod, Florus
64 -70 Christian persecutions, Vespasian
A.D. 70 Fall of Jerusalem to Rome
73 A.D. Massacre at Masada – 967 Jews committed suicide
570-632 A..D. Arabs, Islam, Persian influences.
5th century Spanish Visigoth invasion. Massacre of Sephardic Jews
12th century British persecution of Jews relating to “blood libel” deaths
14th + 15th century Spanish inquisition: baptism or death
15th century Moors expelled, then rest of Spanish Jews – expelled from Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
WW1 Ottoman empire – Turks overruled Islamic Jews, destroying their culture
1920 British mandate in Jerusalem
1940-44 German 3rd Reich – Hitler
1939-45 Russian purges in Poland, Russia
1970s Arab-Palestinian wars
1948 State of Israel
1948 – present Palestinian uprisings and land grabbing
1966 6 day war

(See Timeline of Seminal Events in Modern Israel below.) Jews through history have endured pogroms, purges, slavery, famine, death and conquering, rebuke of their rituals and the hatred of their conquerors, war and subjugation, disgrace, murder, fear, hopelessness, every horror known to mankind. Why? Read Romans 11. Yet the Jewish people continue to be the covenant people of God who remembers them and will fulfill his prophesies of restoration to them in these latter days.

 

Timeline of Seminal Events in Modern Israel

 

1918  British General Edmund Allenby defeats the Ottoman Turks and occupies all of Palestine

1920  Britain receives League of Nations mandate over Palestine at San Remo Conference and is told to facilitate creation of a Jewish homeland there.

1922  Church White Paper reduces British commitment to the Jewish people and gives 77 percent of area designated for them to Abdullah and the Arabs (Transjordan).

1929  Arabs riot in Jerusalem and massacre Jews in Hebron and Safed. Second White Paper further reneges on Britain’s Jewish commitment and limits Jewish immigration.

1934  To flee Hitler, Jews try to immigrate. Britain refuses them entry. During following two years, 65,000 Jews immigrate to Israel.

1937  Peel Commission recommends partitioning remaining 23 percent of land designated for Jews, into two countries: one Jewish, one Arab.

Between 1948 and 1951 almost 700,000 Jews migrated to Israel.

From 1955 to 1957 two-thirds of the almost 250,000 migrant Jews went to Israel (from Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Poland and Hungary). Half of a further 450,000 migrant Jews went to Israel between 1961 and 1964. (Virtually all Jews left Algeria for France during 1961–62). In the 1980s in two campaigns, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon, virtually the entire Jewish community of Ethiopia was airlifted to Israel. From the area of the former Soviet Union, some 400,000 Jews went to Israel in 1989/91, and many others went elsewhere in the West. In 1992/93 most of the remnant of the Jews in Yemen left the country, many eventually reaching Israel. (From collected statistics of various sources)

1947  UN partitions Palestine into two states: Arab and Jewish. Arabs reject plan; Jews accept.

1948  Ben-Gurion declares independence. US President Harry Truman recognizes the new State of Israel. A year-long war of independence ensues when five Arab nations attack Israel.

Yom Ha-Atzmaut is the celebration of Israeli Independence Day, marking the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. It is observed on the 5th of Iyar. Click the speaker to hear the Israeli national anthem, Hatikvah. According to some views, the restrictions of the Omer period are lifted for this day. A few anti-Zionist Jews observe this day as a day of mourning for the sin of proclaiming the state of Israel without the Messiah.

1964  Fatah forms, with Yasser Arafat as its leader.

1967  Six Day War (June 5-10). Israel captures Sinai and Gaza Strip from Egypt, Golan Heights from Syria and the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan. Israel reunites Jerusalem and assumes control of the Temple Mount. UN adopts Resolution 242.

1973  On Yom Kippur Soviet-backed Egypt and Syria attack Israel. US airlifts supplies. UN passes Resolution 338.

1977  Menachim Begin becomes Israeli Prime Minister and supports keeping disputed territories.

1979  Camp David Accords signed between Egypt and Israel.

1988  PLO recognizes Israel, renouncing terrorism. Yitzhak Shamir elected Israel’s Prime Minister.

1991  Gulf War. Iraqui Scud missiles attack Israel. US deploys Patriot missiles to help Israel.

1992  Yitzhak Rabin becomes Israel’s Prime Minister.

1995  Rabin assassinated. Shimon Peres becomes acting Prime Minister. Expansion of Palestinian rule in West Bank.

1996  Palestinians elect Arafat president.  Netanyahu elected Israeli Prime Minister. Hamas detonates bus bomb killing 19.

1999  Israel elects former General Ehud Barak as Prime Minister.

2000  Barak, Clinton and Arafat meet. Palestinians initiate riots after Ariel Sharon legally visits Temple Mount. Violence and terrorism mount and continue. Called the Oslo War after the Oslo water rights agreements.

2001  Ariel Sharon elected Prime Minister. Suicide bombers and Islamic Jihad bombs kill many.

2002  More suicide bombings. Israel mounts Operation Defensive Wall. Arafat signs PA transitional constitution to guarantee Palestinian rights. It contradicts Arafat’s “democratic, secular state” UN speech.

2003  Mahmoud Abbas elected Palestinian Prime Minister. Arafat maneuvers to maintain control. Violence continues. US releases Road Map peace plan.

 

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